Understanding CVV2

Fraud False Positives_Blog Image

As e-commerce merchants strive to provide seamless and secure payment experiences for their customers, they are confronted with the ever-present threat of fraud.

While there are a variety of different fraud prevention methods available, the most commonly employed is CVV2 verification. Let’s take a closer look at CVV2 and how it can serve as an important part of a merchant’s fraud-fighting arsenal.

Table of Contents

  1. What is CVV2?
  2. How CVV2 Enhances Payment Security
  3. Generating and Using CVV2
  4. CVV2 Compliance
  5. Limitations of CVV2
  6. The Future of CVV2
  7. Conclusion

What is CVV2?

Card Verification Value 2 (CVV2) is a three or four-digit security code printed on payment cards, typically located on the back of the card. Its primary purpose is to provide an additional layer of authentication in card-not-present transactions. CVV2 serves as a means of verifying that the person initiating the transaction possesses the actual card.

The original version of the CVV was encoded in the magnetic stripe of a credit card. CVV2 was developed to address the security challenges posed by remote transactions, such as online and over-the-phone purchases.

How CVV2 Enhances Payment Security

CVV2 plays a vital role in mitigating the risk of unauthorized transactions. If a hacker is able to compromise a merchant’s database of customer information, thousands of credit card numbers can be stolen at once.

fraud Prevention- Proven Strategies to prevent e-commerce fraud However, merchants are forbidden from storing a card’s CVV2, so the stolen card numbers will lack this information. As a result, fraudsters will only be able to use these card numbers with merchants who don’t perform CVV2 verification.

As a result of CVV2 and stricter standards for secure storage of payment credentials, fraudsters have been forced to turn to less efficient methods of obtaining credit card numbers, such as phishing. Unlike hacking merchant systems, these methods capture the CVV2 in addition to the card number by getting it directly from the cardholder.

Generating and Using CVV2

CVV2 numbers are not embossed on the card and are not part of the card's magnetic stripe data. Instead, they’re generated using a cryptographic algorithm that takes into account the card number and expiration date.

This makes it exceedingly difficult for attackers to predict or generate valid CVV2 codes without access to the card issuer's algorithm.

When a customer provides the CVV2 as part of a transaction, the merchant's payment gateway communicates this information to the card issuer as part of the authorization request. The card issuer then validates the CVV2 along with the other transaction data and transmits a code indicating whether the transaction has been approved or declined.

CVV2 Compliance

Merchants must adhere to PCI DSS guidelines to maintain the security of CVV2 data. This includes not storing CVV2, encrypting data transmissions, and conducting regular security assessments.

Non-compliance with these rules can have severe consequences for merchants. They may face financial penalties, legal actions, and reputational damage in the event of a data breach or security incident. Adhering to regulations is not just a legal obligation but also a fundamental responsibility to protect both customers and the merchant's business.

Limitations of CVV2

While CVV2 provides an additional layer of security, it is not invulnerable. Determined attackers can still employ methods like phishing or malware to compromise cardholder data, including CVV2 codes.

Learn How To Fight Them The Smart WayMerchants should adopt a multi-layered approach to security, combining CVV2 with other authentication methods, transaction monitoring, and fraud detection systems. This approach provides a more robust defense against a wide range of threats.

Merchants must also have a strategy to defend themselves against friendly fraud. Since this form of fraud is committed by cardholders themselves, methods of preventing third-party fraud—like CVV2—won’t be able to stop it. Instead, merchants must create a chargeback management strategy that includes identifying and fighting cases of friendly fraud in order to recover revenue and disincentivize further fraud attempts.

The Future of CVV2

Despite the rapidly evolving payment landscape, CVV2 is likely to remain relevant. It’s one of the simplest fraud prevention methods for merchants to implement, and it creates relatively little friction for customers in most cases.

CVV2's low cost of implementation also makes it a crucial tool for small businesses that might not be able to afford more advanced fraud detection systems.

One potential evolution in CVV2 technology is Dynamic CVV2, or dCVV2. Created by Visa, dCVV2 allows issuers to provide cardholders with single-use CVV2 codes through SMS or a mobile banking app.

For now, dCVV2 remains uncommon, perhaps because of the additional friction it creates for cardholders. However, as consumers become more accustomed to security measures like two-factor authentication that use similar methods, dCVV2 could become a more widely used technology.


Despite its low-tech appearance, CVV2 is a key component of modern payment security. By implementing CVV2 as part of a robust and effective fraud prevention strategy, merchants can ensure a secure and seamless payment experience for their customers, fostering trust and resilience in an ever-changing digital world.

Thanks for following the Chargeback Gurus blog. Feel free to submit topic suggestions, questions, or requests for advice to:

Chargebacks 101